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Types of Banks In India - Banking History and Role of Banks

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Types of Banks In India - Banking History and Role of Banks


If you are preparing for Baking Examination then you should keep the historical knowledge about the Banking system in India, Types of Banks in India and their role. Here we have summrised  the full details about Types of Banks In India - Banking History and Role of Banks . Read this article with full concentration, it will helps to answer the Banking awareness question in IBPS PO, SBI PO Examinations. 

Indian Banking History 

  • The first bank of limited  liability managed by Indians was Oudh Commercial Bank founded in 1881. 
  • Punjab National Bank was established in 1894. 
  • Swadeshi movement, which began in 1906, encouraged the formation of a number of commercial banks. 
  • Banking crisis during 1913 -1917 and failure of 588 banks In various States during the decade ended 1949 underlined the need for regulating and controlling commercial banks. 
  • The Banking Companies Act was passed in February 1949, which was subsequently amended to read as Banking regulation Act, 1949.This Act provided the legal framework for regulation of the banking system by RBI. 
  • The largest bank - Imperial Bank of India - was nationalised In 1955 and rechristened as State Bank of India, followed by formation of its 7 Associate Banks in 1959. 
  • With a view to bring commercial banks into the mainstream of economic development with definite social obligations and objectives, the Government issued an ordinance on 19 July 1989 acquiring ownership and control of 14 major banks in the country Six more commercial banks were nationalised from 15 April 1980. 

Meaning of Bank :

Bank is a lawful organisation, which accepts deposits that can be withdrawn on demand. It also lends money to individuals and business houses that need it

Role of Banking :

Banks provide funds for business as well as personal needs of individuals. They play a significant role in the economy of a nation. Let us know about the rob of banking. 

  1. It encourages savings habit amongst people and thereby makes funds available for productive use S It acts as an intermediary between people having surplus money and those requiring money for various business activities,
  2. It facilitates business transactions through receipts and payments by cheques instead of currency. 
  3. It provides loans and advances to businessmen for short term and long-term purposes. S Kelso facilitates import export transactions.
  4. It helps in national development by providing credit to farmers. small-scale industries and self-employed people as well as to large business houses which lead to balanced economic development in the country. 
  5. It helps in raising the standard of living of people in general by providing loans for purchase of consumer durable goods, houses, automobile, etc. 


Types of Banks 

There are various types of banks which operate in our country to meet the financial requirements of different categories of people engaged in agriculture, business, profession, etc. 

On the basis of functions, the banking institutions in India may be divided Into the following types. 

1. Central Bank (RBI, in India) • .
2. Commercial Banks 
  • Public Sector Banks 
  • Private Sector Banks '
  • Foreign Banks 
3. Development Banks (IFCI, SFCs) 
4. Cooperative Banks 
  • Prirnary Credit  Societies 
  • Central Co-operative Banks 
  • State Co-operative Banks 
5. Specialised Banks (EXIM BanX SIDBI, NABARD) 

1. Central Bank :

A bank which a entrusted with the functions of guiding and regulating the banking system of a country is known as its Central bank. Such a bank does not deal with the general, public. lt acts essentially as Govemments banker, maintains deposit accounts of all other banks and advances money to other banks when needed. The Central Bank provided guidance to other banks whenever they face any problem., It is therefore known as the banker's bank. The Reserve! Bank of India is the central bank of our country. The Central' Bank maintains record of Government revenue and expenditure under various heads. It also advises the Government on monetary and credit policies and decides on the interest rates for bank deposits and bank loans. In addition, foreign exchange rates are also detennined by the central bank. Another important function of the Central Bank is the issuance of currency notes, regulating their circulation in the country by different methods. No other bank than the Central Bank can issue currency. 

2. Commercial Banks 

Commercial Banks are banking institutions that accept deposits and grant short-term loan, and advances to their customers. to addition to giving shod-term loans, commercial banks also give medium-term and long-term loan to business enterprises Now-a-days some of the commercial banks are also providing housing loan on a long-term basis to individuals. There are also many other functions of commercial bank, which are discussed later in this lesson. 

Types of Commercial banks: 

Commercial banks are of three types i.e , Public sector banks, Private sector banks and Foreign banks. 

Public Sector Banks: 
These are banks where majority stake is held by the Government of India or Reserve Bank of India. Examples of public sector banks are State Bank of India Corporation Bank, Bank of Baroda and Dena Bank, etc 

Private Sectors Banks: 
In case of private sector banks majority of share capital of the bank Is held by private individuals. These banks are registered as companies with limited liablity For example. The Jammu and Kashmir Bank Ltd, Bank of Rajasthan Ltd., Development Credit Bank Ltd. Lord Krishna Bank Ltd., Bharat Overseas Bank Ltd, Global Trust Bank, Vysya Bank, etc. 

Foreign Banks: 
These banks are registered and have their headquarters orators country but operate their branches in our country. Some of the foreign banks operating in our country are Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking_Corporation (HSBC), Citibank, Americari Express Bank, Standard 8 Chartered Bank, Grindlay's Bank, etc The number of foreign banks operating in our country has increased since the financial sector reforms of 1991. 

3.Development Banks 

Business often requires medium and long-tenntapital for purchase of machinery and equipment, for using latest technology, or for expansion and modemdabon. Such financial assistance is provided by Development Bank, They also undertake other development measures like subscribing to the shares and debentures issued by companies, in case of under subscription of the issue by the public. Industrial finance Corporation of Inrfra (IFCI) and State Financial Corporations (SFCs) are examples of development banks in India.

4. Co-operative Banks 

People who come together to jointly serve their common interest often form a co-operative society under the Co-operative Societies Act.when a CO-Operative society engages itself in banking business it is called a Co-operative Ban, The society has to obtain a licence from the Reserve Bank of India before starting banking business. Any co-operative bank as a society is to function under the overall supervision of the Registrar. Co-operative Societies of the State. As regards banking business, the society must follow the guidelines set and issued by the Reserve Bank of India. 

Types of Co-operative Banks 

There are three types of co-operative banks operating in our country. They are primary credit societies, centre co-operative banks and state co-operative bank. These banks are organized at three levels, village or town level, district level and state level. 

Primary Credit Societies: 
These are formed at the village or town level with borrower and non-borrower members residing in one locality. The operations of each society are restricted to a small area so that the members know each other and are able to watch over the activities of all members to prevent frauds. 

Central Co-operative Banks :
 These banks operate at the district level having some of the primary credit societies belonging to the same district as their Members. These banks provide loans to the members (i.e., primary credit societies) and function as a link Between the primary credit societies and state co-operative banks.

State Co-operative Banks: 
These are the apex ( highest level) co-operative banks in all the states of the country. They mobilise funds and help in its proper channelisation among various sectors. The money reaches the individual borrowers from the state co-operative banks through the central co-operative banks and the primary credit societies. 

5. Specialised Banks 

There are some banks, which cater to the requirements and provide overall support for setting up business in specific areas of activity. EXIM Bank, SIDIB and NABARD are examples of such banks. They engage themselves in some specific area or activity and thus, are called specialised banks. Let us know about them. 

Export Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank): 
If you want to set up a business for exporting products abroad or importing products from foreign countries for sale in our country, EXIM bank can provide you the required support and assistance. the bank grants loans to exporters and importers and also provides information about the international market. It gives guidance about the opportunities for export or import, the risks involved in it and the competition to be faced, etc-

Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBl)
If you want to establish a small-scale business unit or industry, loan on easy terms can be available through SIDBI. It also finances modernisation of small-scale industrial units, use of new technology and market activities. The aim and focus of SIDBI is to proMote. finance and develop small-scale industries-

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD):
 It is a central or apex institution for financing agrMulturM and rural sectors. If a person is engaged in agriculture or other activities like handloom weaving, fishing, etc. NABARD can provide credit, both short-term and long-term, through regional rural banks. It provides financial assistance, especially, to co-operative credit, in the field of agriculture, small-scale industries, cottage and village industries handicrafts and allied economic activities in rural areas. 
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